Glossary

Wellness Glossary – Health and Wellness Definitions

Use our convenient Wellness Glossary to find the answer to all of these.

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Acupuncture

The practice of inserting fine needles on specific meridian points for the purpose of relieving tension, stress, and pain. Highly useful in the treatment and relief of back pain.

Addiction

Psychological, emotional, or physical dependence on the effects of a drug or substance.

Adjustments

A form of chiropractic technique involving the application of gentle, yet firm, pressure to a bone. Adjustments employ a high velocity, low amplitude thrust. The goal of any adjustment is to restore the bone to its natural, or original, position.

Adrenal Glands

Small glands located on the kidneys that produce the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol.

Adrenaline

A hormone that stimulates metabolism, increases alertness and increases blood pressure.

Aerobic Exercise

These kinds of exercises generally involve large muscle groups and foster a strong and healthy heart and lung function.

AIDS
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

The final and most serious stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system. AIDS begins when a person with HIV infection has a CD4 cell count below 200. (CD4 is also called “T-cell”, a type of immune cell.) AIDS is also defined by numerous opportunistic infections and cancers that occur in the presence of HIV infection. AIDS is the fifth leading cause of death among persons between ages 25 and 44 in the United States.

Alternative Medicine

The use of various non-drug, non-surgical therapies that also incorporate a natural means of treatment.

Amino Acid

The basic unit from which proteins are made. There are two classes of amino acids: essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be manufactured by the body and must be attained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that the body can synthesize from other amino acids.

Anabolism

The metabolic process of building new tissue. Typically used in relation to building muscle, ligaments and tendons.

Analgesics

Medicines that are used to relieve pain – aspirin is an example.

Anesthesiologist

A physician who specializes in giving drugs or other agents that block, prevent, or relieve pain.

Antioxidant

A substance that may inhibit oxidation caused by free radicals in the body. Examples of antioxidants include Vitamins A, C and E, as well as carotenoids like lycopene and beta-carotene.

Arthritis

Inflammation of a joint; most arthritis is caused by degenerative changes related to aging or acidity in the diet. Arthritis affects not only joints but also connective tissue throughout the body can be involved, as well.

Autonomic nervous system

The part of the nervous system that is responsible for controlling the involuntary functions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, blood pressure, etc.

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Back Extension

Backward bending of the spine.

Back Flexon

Forward bending of the spine.

Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE)

(Basal Metabolic Rate) The number of calories that your body needs for basic processes such as digestion, breathing, brain function, etc.

Beta-Carotene

A form of vitamin A found naturally in yellow/orange vegetables and fruits.

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)

A way to estimate the amount of body weight that is fat and nonfat. Nonfat weight comes from bone, muscle, body water, organs, and other body tissues. BIA works by measuring how difficult it is for a harmless electrical current to move through the body. The more fat a person has, the harder it is for electricity to flow through the body. The less fat a person has, the easier it is for electricity to flow through the body. By measuring the flow of electricity, one can estimate body fat percent.

Body composition score (BCS)

A measure that combines body weight, percentage of body fat, waist circumference and hip circumference into one score. The BCS is a more accurate measure of weight loss progress than simply measuring body weight.

Body mass index (BMI)

A measure of body weight relative to height. BMI can be used to determine if people are at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese. A body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 up to 25 refers to a healthy weight, a BMI of 25 up to 30 refers to overweight and a BMI of 30 or higher refers to obese.

Bodywork

A general term that relates to a wide variety of hands-on therapies, such as massage and some movement therapies.

Bursitis

A condition in which the bursa, or fluid filled sacks that cushion joints, become swollen.

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Calcium

A mineral important in building and maintaining bones, and for muscle and nerve function. Sources of calcium include dairy products, leafy vegetables and calcium fortified foods (e.g. juice and cereals).

Calorie

A unit of energy in food. Carbohydrates have 4 calories per gram. Proteins have 4 calories per gram. Fat has 9 calories per gram.

Calorie Free

A food containing less than 5 calories per serving.

Carbohydrate

A major source of energy in the diet. There are two kinds of carbohydrates: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are sugars, while complex carbohydrates include both starches and fiber. Carbohydrates have 4 calories per gram. They are found naturally in foods such as breads, cereals, fruits, vegetables, and milk and dairy products. Foods such as sugar cereals, soft drinks, fruit drinks, fruit punch, lemonade, cakes, cookies, pies, ice cream, and candy are very rich in sugars.

Cardiovascular system

The system in your body responsible for distributing blood throughout the body. The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins.

Catabolism

The metabolic process of breaking down tissues. Typically refers to the breakdown of muscle, bone, ligaments and tendons.

Carotenoids

Pigments commonly found in plants and animals, some of which are converted into Vitamin A in the body (examples of carotenoids include Beta-Carotene, Lycopene and, Lutein). Brightly colored fruits and vegetables derive their color from carotenoids, many of which are reported to have antioxidant properties.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

A progressive and sometimes painful joint disorder caused by a compression of the median nerve of your hand commonly originating from the neck. The compression causes swelling, which exerts pressure on the nerves.

Cartilage

A connective tissue that lines the ends of bones and most joints. It lines the facet joints of the spine.

Casual Dress Policy

A policy allowing employees to come to work in casual dress, often during designated times, such as over the summer or on Fridays.

Chinese Medicine

The general term to describe the numerous techniques utilized in China for many thousands of years to heal bodily ailments. These may include massage, herbs, acupuncture and Qi Gong.

Chiropractic

Comes from the Greek words, “chiro,” meaning hand, and “practic,” meaning practice, or treatment. Chiropractic is a form of health care that focuses primarily on restoring normal position, motion and function in the body’s structures; especially the spine (nervous system).

Chiropractor

Also known as a doctor of chiropractic (D.C.), diagnoses and treats a broad range of physical conditions in patients with muscular, nervous, and skeletal problems, especially the spine.

Chronic Pain

Pain that has lasted for more than three months generally having significant psychological and emotional affects and limiting a person’s ability to fully function.

Cholesterol

A fat-like substance that is made by the body and is found naturally in animal foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Foods high in cholesterol include liver and organ meats, egg yolks, and dairy fats. Cholesterol is carried in the blood. When cholesterol levels are too high, some of the cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the blood vessels. Over time, the deposits can build up causing the blood vessels to narrow and blood flow to decrease. The cholesterol in food, like saturated fat, tends to raise blood cholesterol, which increases the risk for heart disease. Total blood cholesterol levels above 240 mg/dl are considered high. Levels between 200-239 mg/dl are considered borderline high. Levels under 200 mg/dl are considered desirable.

Cholesterol Free

A food containing less than 2 milligrams of cholesterol and 2 g or less saturated fat per serving.

Cortisol

A hormone that is released from the adrenal glands in response to stress that facilitates fat storage and has a catabolic affect on muscle and connective tissue.

Cognitive Restructuring

A therapy whose emphasis is on learning to recognize and then change, or restructure thought processes, reframing thoughts in less stressful terms. Learning to make molehills out of mountains.

Complementary Medicine

The use of various non-drug, non-surgical related therapies. Using natural means of treatment.

Cranio-Sacral Therapy

A manual therapy focusing on manipulation of the bones in the skull and sacrum.

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Daily Values (DV)

Standard values developed by the FDA and USDA for food labels to help consumers assess food value. It is an estimate of how much of a nutrient is needed per day.

Degenerative Arthritis

The wearing away of cartilage that protects and cushions joints including those in the spine, hands and feet (see Osteoarthritis).

Diabetes Mellitus

A disease that occurs when the body is not able to use blood glucose (sugar). Blood sugar levels are controlled by insulin, a hormone in the body that helps move glucose (sugar) from the blood to muscles and other tissues. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body does not respond to the insulin that is made.

Diet

What a person eats and drinks. Any type of eating plan.

Dietary Fiber

Found only in plant foods, fiber refers to the remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the human body. Dietary fiber, the fiber in our diets, can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble fiber, such as that contained in oats, dissolves in water and is associated with blood cholesterol reduction. Insoluble fiber, such as bran, does not dissolve in water and produce bulk in the diet.

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Endorphins

Chemical messengers released by the body during vigorous exercise that stimulate the brain to feel good, happy and relaxed.

Energy expenditure

The amount of energy, measured in calories, that a person uses. Calories are used by people to breathe, circulate blood, digest food, and be physically active.

Exercise

Exercise is physical activity that is planned or structured. It involves repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness: cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, endurance, flexibility and body composition.

Exercise Therapy

A form of chiropractic treatment used to help manage pain, rehabilitate damaged soft tissues, such as muscles, ligament, and tendons, and restore normal range of motion and function.

Extensor Muscles

Muscles that cause your joints to straighten, such as the back and gluteus muscles that help keep your back straight.

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Fascia

A band of connective tissue separating muscles and organs in the body.

Fat

A major source of energy in the diet. All food fats have 9 calories per gram. Fat helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K, and carotenoids. Some kinds of fats, especially saturated fats, [see definition] may cause blood cholesterol to increase and increase the risk for heart disease. Other fats, such as unsaturated fats do not increase blood cholesterol. Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids.

Fat Free, Fat-free

A food containing less than 0.5 grams of fat per serving.

Fats, Dietary Fats

Fat provides 9 calories per gram. Fat is important to maintain cell walls, provide insulation and concentrated energy. Fat also carries the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K through the body. Food sources of fat include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, butter, margarine, oil and some dairy products. In food, there are two types of fat: saturated and unsaturated.

Fats, Hydrogenated

Unsaturated fats that have been processed (hydrogenated) to make them more saturated, spreadable, and longer lasting. Hydrogenation produces trans-fatty acids, which may have health effects similar to those of saturated fatty acids. The most common sources of hydrogenated fats are stick or tub margarine, commercial baked goods and fried foods.

Fats, Saturated

Solid at room temperature and come chiefly from animal food products. Examples are butter, lard, meat fat, solid shortening, palm oil, and coconut oil.

Fats, Unsaturated

Liquid at room temperature and come from plant oils such as olive, peanut, corn, cottonseed, sunflower, safflower, and soybean. Includes monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.

Fats, Polyunsaturated

A highly unsaturated fat that is liquid at room temperature. Polyunsaturated fats are found in greatest amounts in corn, soybean, and safflower oils, and many types of nuts. They have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may still contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess.

Fiber

Found only in plant foods, fiber refers to the remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the human body. Dietary fiber, the fiber in our diets, can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble fiber, such as that contained in oats, dissolved in water and is associated with blood cholesterol reduction. Insoluble fiber, such as bran, does not dissolve in water and produce bulk in the diet.

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain in muscles, joints, ligaments and tendons. Fibrositis: Pain arising from damaged tendons or muscles.

Flexor Muscles

muscles that cause your joints to bend, such as your biceps muscle on the front of your upper arm or your abdominal muscles.

Folate (Folic Acid, Folacin)

A water-soluble B-complex vitamin that aids in the formation of red blood cells, prevents certain anemias, and is essential for normal cell function. It is found in leafy green vegetables, some fruits, legumes, liver, and yeast breads.

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Gestational diabetes

A type of diabetes mellitus that can occur when a woman is pregnant. In the second half of her pregnancy, a woman may have glucose (sugar) in her blood at a higher than normal level. In about 95 percent of cases, blood sugar returns to normal after the pregnancy is over. Women who develop gestational diabetes, however, are at risk for developing Type II diabetes later in life. Ghrelin: A hormone released from the stomach and the small intestine that creates the sensation of hunger.

Glucagon

A hormone released from the pancreas that elevates blood sugar by stimulating the release of glucose stores in the liver and muscle.

Glucose

A building block for most carbohydrates. Digestion causes carbohydrates to break down into glucose. After digestion, glucose is carried in the blood and goes to body cells where it is used for energy or stored.

Glycemic index

A measure of a food’s ability to raise the body’s blood glucose level. Foods that have a low glycemic index do not raise blood glucose levels to nearly the extent of high glycemic index foods.

Good Source

Describes foods that contain 10 percent or more of the Daily Value per serving of a specified nutrient.

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Health Fair

A health fair is an organized event which is designed to promote health and wellness.  Health fairs can be both private and community-based.  For more information please refer to our Health Fair Planning Guide.

Health Risk Appraisal (HRA)

a valuable personal wellness profile with a series of questions that results in an overall portrait of your current health status and potential future health risks.  The phrase is also used interchangeably with the phrase Health Risk Assessment.  For more information refer to Health Risk Appraisal.

Health Risk Assessment (HRA)

a questionnaire used to determine a person and/or groups current health status as well as their potential future health risks.  The questionnaires refer to many different lifestyle and behavioral activities.  The phrase is also use interchangeably with the phrase Health Risk Appraisal.  For more information please refer to Health Risk Assessment.

Health Screening

Health services provided to employees onsite or at a community medical center for screenings, flu shots, consultations, etc.

Health Wellness Program

A health wellness program is a phrase used to describe health promotion efforts.  This general term can be used to describe a host of different programs.  For more information refer to Health Wellness Program

Healthy weight

Compared to overweight or obese, a body weight that is less likely to be linked with any weight-related health problems such as Type II diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, or others. A person with a body fat percentage between 18% – 22% (depending on age) are considered to be at a healthy weight.

High blood pressure

See Hypertension.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

A form of cholesterol that circulates in the blood. Commonly called “good” cholesterol. High HDL lowers the risk of heart disease. An HDL of 60 mg/dl or greater is considered high and is protective against heart disease. An HDL less than 40 mg/dl is considered low and increases the risk for developing heart disease.

High Fiber

A food containing 5 grams or more of fiber per serving, which is at least 20% of the Recommended Daily Value for fiber.

High; Rich In; Excellent Source Of

Describes foods that have 20 percent or more of the Recommended Daily Value or more of a particular nutrient.

Hip circumference

A measurement of the hips, including the widest portion of the buttocks, used in conjunction with the waist circumference, body weight and percent body fat to calculate the body composition score.

Hydrogenated Fats

Hydrogenated fats are unsaturated fats that have been processed (hydrogenated) to make them more saturated, spreadable, and longer lasting. Hydrogenation produces trans-fatty acids, which may have health effects similar to those of saturated fatty acids. The most common sources of hydrogenated fats are stick or tub margarine, commercial baked goods and fried foods.

Hypertension

a resting blood pressure is greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg. Hypertension is associated with an increasee risk of heart disease and stroke.

Hypothalamus

A small area of the brain that is a main control center for regulating eating and sleeping behavior in humans. It has binding sites for several hormones including ghrelin and leptin.

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Ideal body weight

The weight that your body would be if you had a 20% body fat. Calculated by multiplying your current lean body mass by 1.2.

Imagery

A method of pain relief that uses mental images produced by memory or imagination.

Insulin

A hormone in the body that helps move glucose from the blood to muscles and other tissues. Insulin controls blood sugar levels.

Inflammation

A pathologic process associated with redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. This process destroys tissues but is also associated with the repair and healing of body structures.

Iron

A mineral that carries oxygen in red blood cells to the body’s cells. Foods that contain iron include meats, eggs and dark leafy vegetables.

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Kinesiology

The study of muscles and their relation to movement and pain relief.

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Lacto-ovo-vegetarian

Products that contain no meat, fish or poultry but may contain dairy or eggs. (see also VEGETARIAN)

Lacto-vegetarian

Products that contain no meat , fish, poultry or eggs but may contain dairy. (see also VEGETARIAN)

Leptin

A hormone produced by the small intestine that signals the brain to stop eating. People who are overweight will often have a diminished leptin response in the brain.

Ligament

Strong, dense bands made of connective tissue that stabilize a joint, connecting bone to bone across the joint.

Light, Lite

A term used to define food whose fat or sodium content is reduced by 50% or more compared to a reference food. Food can also be definted as light if it has 1/3 fewer calories than the reference food, but only if the reference food contains less than 50% calories from fat. It can also refer to a food that is light in color or light in texture.

Lipoprotein

Compounds of protein that carry fats and fat-like substances, such as cholesterol, in the blood.

Local anesthetics

Drugs that block nerve conduction in the region where it is applied.

Low Calorie

A food containing 40 calories or less per serving

Low Cholesterol

A food containing 20 milligrams or less of Cholesterol and 2 grams or less of saturated fat per serving.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

A form of cholesterol that circulates in the blood. Commonly called “bad” cholesterol. High LDL increases the risk of heart disease. An LDL less than 100 mg/dl is considered optimal,100-129 mg/dl is considered near or above optimal, 130-159 mg/dl is considered borderline high, 160-189 mg/dl is considered high, and 190 mg/dl or greater is considered very high.

Low Fat

A food containing 3 grams of fat or less per serving

Low Saturated Fat

A food containing 1 gram of saturated fat or less per serving

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Massage Therapy

A general term to describe various bodywork techniques.

Maximum heart rate

A person’s maximum heart rate is based on their age. An estimate of a person’s maximum age-related heart rate can be obtained by subtracting the person’s age from 220. For example, for a 50-year-old person, the estimated maximum heart rate would be calculated as: 220 – 50 = 170 beats per minute. The maximum heart rate is important for measuring whether exercise is classified as moderate-intensity (50% – 70% of maximum) or vigorous-intensity (70% – 85% of maximum).

Meditation

A general term for numerous practices where one focuses awareness on one thing such as breath or a short phrase in order to quiet the mind.

Metabolism

All of the processes that occur in the body that turn the food you eat into energy your body can use.

Moderate-intensity physical activity

To be classified as moderate-intensity, physical activity generally requires sustained, rhythmic movements of an intense enough level to elevate heart rate to 50% – 70% of maximum heart rate. A person should feel some exertion but should be able to carry on a conversation comfortably during the activity.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG)

A flavor enhancer used to intensify the flavor of other compounds present in foods.

Monounsaturated fat

Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fat is found in canola oil, olives and olive oil, nuts, seeds, and avocados. Eating food that has more monounsaturated fat instead of saturated fat may help lower cholesterol and reduce heart disease risk. However, it has the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may still contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess.

Muscle Tension

A state where the muscles are in a general state of contraction.

Muscle Spasm

A sudden violent involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles. A muscle spasm is attended by pain and interference with function, producing involuntary movement and distortion.

Muscles

Soft tissues that provide strength and assist with motor ability, or movement. Spinal muscles support your spine as it bends and flexes.

Myofascial Pain

Referred pain caused by trigger points, or hard nodules in muscle tissue.

Myofascial Release

Releasing the fascia (the sheath around a muscle) by gentle movements.

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Nerve

The body’s communication system; nerves carry messages back and forth between the brain and all body parts.

Nerve roots

Nerve projections from the spinal cord.

Neuropeptide Y

Is the key hunger transmitter in the brain. It signals the hypothalamus to eat. The action of neuropeptide Y is the opposite of that of leptin.

Neurotransmitter

A chemical produced in the brain that sends messages between nerve cells.

Niacin; Vitamin B3

A vitamin essential for carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Example of foods that contain Niacin are poultry, fish, beef, peanut butter, legumes, and whole or enriched grain products.

Nucleus pulposus

Soft center of an intervertebral disc, made up of gel-like substance.

Nutrition

The relationship of food to the well-being of the body.

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Obesity

Having an excessive amount of body fat. A person is considered obese if he or she has a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater.

Oleylethanolamine (OEA)

A fatty acid found in some foods that sends a strong signal to the brain to stop eating. A powerful satiety factor and appetite suppressant.

Omega-3 Oil

A type of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid associated with protection from cardiovascular disease.

Onsite or Telephone Resource Concierge Services

Concierge services located onsite or via telephone access that assists employees in resource referrals on issues ranging anywhere from child care facilities and transportation to local restaurants and hotels.

Osteoarthritis

Also called “degenerative arthritis” mostly affecting middle-aged and elderly men and women. In some, osteoarthritis may affect the spine’s facet joints, making it extremely painful to bend or twist. Osteoarthritis causes the cartilage to break down and away from the joints. Stripped of their protective material, the joints begin rubbing against each other, causing pain and impeding movement. This action further irritates the surrounding nerves. Advanced forms of spinal osteoarthritis lead to disc collapse and other problems.

Osteopathic Medicine

Particular attention is paid to muscles, joints, bones, and nerves through defined osteopathic manipulations.

Osteoporosis

A disease characterized by the loss of bone density, resulting in brittleness; most commonly affecting the spinal vertebrae, wrists and hips.

Overload principle

Strength training term that refers to the phenomenon that muscles only grow in strength if they are pushed to near maximum effort – overloaded.

Overweight

Carrying too much body fat. (see Obesity) Ovo-vegetarian: Products that contain no meat, fish, poultry or dairy but may contain eggs. (see also VEGETARIAN)

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Pancreas

A gland that makes enzymes that help the body break down and use nutrients in food. It also produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, releasing these into the bloodstream to help the body control blood sugar levels.

Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil

Oil that has been hydrogenated to modify the texture from a liquid to a semisolid or solid. Hydrogenation, the chemical addition of hydrogen, raises the melting point and converts the oil to a more desirable texture and consistency (see also FATS).

Pedometer

A small device that counts each step taken, total distance walked, or other related measures. It is usually worn on the waistband or in a pocket. Phenylethanolamine (PEA): A chemical found in chocolate that elevates mood. It is thought to be the compound that causes chocolate cravings.

Physical activity

Any form of exercise or movement. Physical activity may include planned activity such as walking, running, basketball, or other sports. Physical activity may also include other daily activities such as household chores, yard work, walking the dog, etc.

Physical fitness

The measure of a person’s ability to perform physical activities that require endurance, strength, or flexibility and is determined by a combination of regular activity and genetically inherited ability.

Physical Therapy

The health profession that treats pain in muscles, nerves, joints, and bones with exercise, electrical stimulation, hydrotherapy, and the use of massage, heat, cold, and electrical devices. Phytochemicals: Plant chemicals, some of which are associated with potential health benefits.

Polyunsaturated fat

A highly unsaturated fat that is liquid at room temperature. Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fats are found in greatest amounts in corn, soybean, and safflower oils, and many types of nuts. They have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may still contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess.

Potassium

A mineral essential for nerve function and muscle contraction. Examples of foods that contain potassium include fruits, vegetable, meat, poultry, fish, milk.

Protein

One of the three nutrients that provides calories to the body. Protein is an essential nutrient that helps build many parts of the body, including muscle, bone, skin, and blood. Protein provides 4 calories per gram and is found in foods like meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, beans, nuts, and tofu.

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Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)

The level of dietary intake of essential nutrients considered to be sufficient to meet the minimum nutritional needs of most healthy individuals.

Reduced Cholesterol

A food containing a minimum of 25% less cholesterol than the reference food.

Reduced Or Fewer Calories

A food containing a minimum of 25% fewer calories (kcal) per serving than a reference food.

Reduced Or Less Saturated Fat

A food containing a minimum of 25% less saturated fat per serving than a reference food.

Reduced Or Lower Fat

A food containing a minimum of 25% less fat per serving than a reference food.

Relaxation Techniques

A natural process that can be learned by anyone to reverse the effects of stress on the body’s physiology. Methods used to lessen tension, reduce anxiety, and manage pain.

Repetitions or “Reps”

Refers to a single full execution of an exercise movement. For example, one repetition of a push-up involves beginning with your arms straight, lowering your body to the floor and returning to the starting position. The number of repetitions you perform of a particular exercise will determine the type of benefit to your muscles. Higher weights with lower repetitions will increase strength. Lower weights with higher repetitions will increase endurance.

Routine

This term encompasses virtually every aspect of what you do in an exercise session, including: the exercises, reps and sets you do of strength training, aerobic conditioning, the order in which you perform the exercises, the length of time spent. To keep workouts interesting, many people change their routine from time to time. Your routine is also referred to as your “program” or your “workout.”

Rheumatoid Arthritis

An inflammatory disease that affects the facet joints in the spine as well as other joints in the body including the hands, elbows, shoulders, fingers and toes.

Riboflavin; Vitamin B-2

A vitamin essential for the metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrates into energy. Examples of foods that contain Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) are milk and other dairy foods, organ meats and enriched and fortified grains

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Satiety

A mechanism to tell the body that it has had enough food. The most important satiety compounds are the hormone leptin and the fatty acid oleylethanolamine (OEA).

Saturated fat

A fat that is solid at room temperature. Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Saturated fat is found in high-fat dairy products (like cheese, whole milk, cream, butter, and regular ice cream), fatty fresh and processed meats, the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, lard, palm oil, and coconut oil. They have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. Eating a diet high in saturated fat also raises blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.

Sedentary

A person who engages in little to no leisure-time physical activity.

Serotonin

A neurotransmitter in the brain that elevates mood and decreases appetite.

Set

A set is a group of repetitions that you perform without rest. For example, if you do ten repetitions of a bench press and then place the bar back on the rack and rest, you have just completed one set. For strength training, most people do three sets of a particular exercise, 10 – 15 repetitions in each set, and a one minute rest between each set.

Starvation metabolism

The slowing of the basal energy expenditure caused by chronic underfeeding, leading to a reduction in the rate at which the body burns calories and an increase in the rate at which the body attempts to store fat.

Strength training

This helps you tone muscles and lose fat. It also helps to keep your bones strong-which helps you avoid fractures as your bones weaken with age.

Stress Management Programs

Onsite programs offered to employees to assess their personal stress level and to help them learn to effectively manage stress in their lives.

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Tendon

White fibrous bands of tissue that attach muscle to bone.

Therapeutic massage

A form of massage that involves the manipulation of the soft tissues of the body to decrease muscle spasm, pain and to improve movement.

Thiamin; Vitamin B-1

A vitamin essential for carbohydrate metabolism (energy production). Examples of foods that contain Thiamin include whole or enriched grain products, fortified cereals, pork and organ meats.

Thyroid hormone

A hormone released by the thyroid gland that stimulates metabolism and helps to regulate a range of biochemical processes in the body.

Tolerance

Decreasing effect of a drug with the same dose or the need to increase the dose to maintain the same effect.

Tranquilizer

A drug sometimes used to address anxiety.

Trans Fatty Acids

A type of fatty acid that is associated with raising blood cholesterol levels and increasing the risk of clogged arteries.

Transportation Subsidy

A subsidy offered to employees to partially or fully cover the cost of public transportation to and from work.

Trigger Point Therapy

The application of pressure on tender trigger points in the muscles to relieve pain and tension.

Trigger Points

A generally small area of a muscle that is tightly knotted and in spasm causing referred pain.

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Underwater weighing

A research method for estimating body fat. A person is placed in a tank, underwater, and weighed. By comparing weight underwater with weight on land, one can get a very good measure of body fat.

Unsaturated fat

A fat that is liquid at room temperature. Vegetable oils are unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats include polyunsaturated fats, and monounsaturated fats. Sources of unsaturated fats include most nuts, olives, avocados, and fatty fish such as salmon.

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Vegan

Products that contain no meat, fish, poultry or animal by-products. (See also VEGETARIAN)

Vegetarian

A product that does not contain meat. Types of vegetarianism include: lacto-ovo vegetarian, ovo-vegetarian, lacto-vegetarian, and vegan.

Vigorous-intensity physical activity

To be classified as vigorous-intensity, physical activity requires sustained, rhythmic movements of an intense enough level to elevate heart rate to 70% – 85% of maximum heart rate. Vigorous-intensity physical activity may be intense enough to represent a substantial challenge to an individual, resulting in a significant increase in heart rate and respiration.

Vitamin A (Retinol)

Essential for vision, growth, reproduction, and maintenance of healthy skin. Examples of foods that contain Vitamin A include liver, fish oils, eggs, dairy products. Red, yellow, orange, and dark green vegetables and fruits contain alpha- and beta-carotenes, which are converted in the body to Vitamin A.

Vitamin B-12

Essential for energy and amino acid production. Examples of foods that contain Vitamin B12 include beef, milk, cheese and shellfish.

Vitamin B6

Essential for the manufacture of amino acids and red blood cells. Foods that contain Vitamin B6 include fortified cereals, sweet potatoes, chicken and beef liver.

Vitamin C

Essential for healthy bones and teeth and wound healing. Foods that contain Vitamin C include fruits (especially citrus) and vegetables (especially those in the cabbage family).

-W-

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Waist circumference

A measurement of the waist. Fat around the waist increases the risk of obesity-related health problems.

Weight control

Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight by eating well and getting regular physical activity.

Weight-cycle

Losing and gaining weight over and over again. Commonly called “yo-yo” dieting. With each cycle, there is a worsening of the percentage of body fat due to a loss of lean muscle tissue.

Wellness

physical well-being, especially when maintained or achieved through good diet and regular exercise.

Wellness Consultant

A wellness consultant is a professional trained to assist individuals and/or organizations with health promotion and wellness programs.

Wellness Program

A wellness program are any programs which promote health. Wellness programs can be personal or group based.  The phrase is loosely used to describe a wide range of activities and programs.

Wrist circumference

A measurement of the wrist at its thinnest point, just proximal to the hand, that is used to estimate the size of an individual’s overall skeletal structure.

-X-

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X-Ray

A diagnostic imaging method that exposes photographic films with radiation passed through the body. It is most useful in diagnosing fractures, dislocations, abnormal positioning or other structural problems in bone.

-Y-

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Yoga

A gentle exercise system consisting of numerous stretching movements that is extremely helpful in healing.

-Z-

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Zinc

A mineral essential for cell reproduction and tissue growth and repair. Foods that contain zinc include meat, eggs, seafood and whole grains.


One Comment on “Glossary”

  1. I’m not sure where you’re getting your info, but good topic.

    I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding
    more. Thanks for magnificent info I was looking for this information for my mission.


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